Front Controller design pattern

The front controller pattern makes sure that there is one and only one point of entry. All requests are investigated, routed to the designated controller and then processed accordingly to the specification. The front controller is responsible of initializing the environment and routing requests to designated controllers.

The front controller design pattern is used to provide a centralized request handling mechanism so that all requests will be handled by a single handler. This handler can do the authentication/ authorization/ logging or tracking of request and then pass the requests to corresponding handlers. Following are the entities of this type of design pattern.

  • Front Controller – Single handler for all kinds of requests coming to the application (either web based/ desktop based).
  • Dispatcher – Front Controller may use a dispatcher object which can dispatch the request to corresponding specific handler.
  • View – Views are the object for which the requests are made.

Implementation

We are going to create a FrontController and Dispatcher to act as Front Controller and Dispatcher correspondingly. HomeView and StudentView represent various views for which requests can come to front controller.

FrontControllerPatternDemo, our demo class, will use FrontController to demonstrate Front Controller Design Pattern.

Front Controller Pattern UML Diagram

Step 1

Create Views.

HomeView.java

public class HomeView {
   public void show(){
      System.out.println("Displaying Home Page");
   }
}

StudentView.java

public class StudentView {
   public void show(){
      System.out.println("Displaying Student Page");
   }
}

Step 2

Create Dispatcher.

Dispatcher.java

public class Dispatcher {
   private StudentView studentView;
   private HomeView homeView;
   
   public Dispatcher(){
      studentView = new StudentView();
      homeView = new HomeView();
   }

   public void dispatch(String request){
      if(request.equalsIgnoreCase("STUDENT")){
         studentView.show();
      }
      else{
         homeView.show();
      }	
   }
}

Step 3

Create FrontController

FrontController.java

public class FrontController {
	
   private Dispatcher dispatcher;

   public FrontController(){
      dispatcher = new Dispatcher();
   }

   private boolean isAuthenticUser(){
      System.out.println("User is authenticated successfully.");
      return true;
   }

   private void trackRequest(String request){
      System.out.println("Page requested: " + request);
   }

   public void dispatchRequest(String request){
      //log each request
      trackRequest(request);
      
      //authenticate the user
      if(isAuthenticUser()){
         dispatcher.dispatch(request);
      }	
   }
}

Step 4

Use the FrontController to demonstrate Front Controller Design Pattern.

FrontControllerPatternDemo.java

public class FrontControllerPatternDemo {
   public static void main(String[] args) {
   
      FrontController frontController = new FrontController();
      frontController.dispatchRequest("HOME");
      frontController.dispatchRequest("STUDENT");
   }
}

Step 5

Verify the output.

Page requested: HOME
User is authenticated successfully.
Displaying Home Page
Page requested: STUDENT
User is authenticated successfully.
Displaying Student Page
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Event – Observer pattern

Imagine a situation: you are developing a custom e-commerce framework and are about to put some finishing touches to your order model. The task is to program functionality, which creates an order at the end of the checkout and saves it to the database. You realize that a confirmation email has to be sent and you add the necessary code. Next morning a product manager asks you to send a copy of the e-mail to his address, and you extend your code accordingly. At a meeting in the afternoon the warehouse guy proposes to automate inventory management by sending a message to the warehouse software; and you implement it in your code. Exporting order as an XML file to feed into the shipping system – done. Notifying the purchasing department when the inventory is too low – done too.

After all this you take a look at your order model and its function placeOrder and see it has become an unmaintainable mess. All these diverse and complex tasks just do not fit into the order model. Yet they are essential for the your business and must be implemented. Situations like this are not uncommon. The growing complexity of enterprise applications often results in code that is inflexible and difficult to maintain, and prohibitively expensive to scale.

Event-driven software architecture has evolved to address such problems by decoupling services and service providers. It introduces events – notable milestones in business processes that invoke services, which observe and react to them. Events alert their subscribers about a problem, or an opportunity, or a threshold in the current process flow. An event broadcasted in the system usually consists of an event header and body. The event header contains an ID that is used to locate subscribers, while the body transports information required to process the event. In some systems event headers can also include information on the event type and creator, or a timestamp – whatever data the specifications mandates.

The service providers are independent entities and can be added or removed without affecting objects, whose events they listen to. Event creators have no knowledge of the subscribed service providers and do not depend on them. Similarly service providers are not interested in the internal mechanics of event creators. This allows for extremely flexible, loosely coupled and distributed systems. This advantages, however, come at a price – tracing events and their subscribers can be difficult.

Below is simple example of Event-Observer pattern :

Application : Suppose we want to find out the different versions of given string let say hex ,decimal , octal etc we can apply event observer for this as given below:

Observer.java

abstract class Observer {

protected Subject subject;

public abstract void update();
}

 

Subject.java

public class Subject {

private List<Observer> observers = new ArrayList<Observer>();
private int state;

public int getState() {
return state;
}

public void setState(int state) {
this.state = state;
notifyAllObservers();
}

public void attach(Observer observer) {
observers.add(observer);
}

public void notifyAllObservers() {
for (Observer observer : observers) {
observer.update();
}
}
}

BinaryObserver.java
public class BinaryObserver extends Observer{

public BinaryObserver(Subject subject){
this.subject = subject;
this.subject.attach(this);
}

@Override
public void update() {
System.out.println( “Binary String: ” + Integer.toBinaryString( subject.getState() ) );
}
}

OctalObserver.java

public class OctalObserver extends Observer{

public OctalObserver(Subject subject){
this.subject = subject;
this.subject.attach(this);
}

@Override
public void update() {
System.out.println( “Octal String: ” + Integer.toOctalString( subject.getState() ) );
}
}

 

HexaObserver.java

public class HexaObserver extends Observer {

public HexaObserver(Subject subject) {
this.subject = subject;
this.subject.attach(this);
}

@Override
public void update() {
System.out.println(“Hex String: ” + Integer.toHexString(subject.getState()).toUpperCase());
}
}

 

ObserverPatternDemo.java

public class ObserverPatternDemo {

public static void main(String[] args) {
Subject subject = new Subject();
new HexaObserver(subject);
new OctalObserver(subject);
new BinaryObserver(subject);
System.out.println(“First state change: 15”);
subject.setState(15);
System.out.println(“Second state change: 10”);
subject.setState(10);
}
}

As soon as event is triggered it is propagated to all attached observer. A beautiful design pattern to code!!

 

 

 

 

 

Python – java integration (Jython)

Python is an easy to learn, powerful programming language. It has efficient high-level data structures and a simple but effective approach to object-oriented programming. Python’s elegant syntax and dynamic typing, together with its interpreted nature, make it an ideal language for scripting and rapid application development in many areas on most platforms.

The Python interpreter and the extensive standard library are freely available in source or binary form for all major platforms from the Python Web site, http://www.python.org/, and may be freely distributed. The same site also contains distributions of and pointers to many free third party Python modules, programs and tools, and additional documentation.

The Python interpreter is easily extended with new functions and data types implemented in C or C++ (or other languages callable from C). Python is also suitable as an extension language for customizable applications.

Jython is an implementation of Python for the JVM. Jython takes the Python programming language syntax and enables it to run on the Java platform. This allows seamless integration with the use of Java libraries and other Java-based applications. The Jython project strives to make all Python modules run on the JVM, but there are a few differences between the implementations. Perhaps the major difference between the two implementations is that Jython does not work with C extensions. Therefore, most of the Python modules will run without changes under Jython, but if they use C extensions then they will probably not work. Likewise, Jython code works with Java but CPython does not. Jython code should run seamlessly under CPython unless it contains Java integration.

For further information read the following :

http://www.jython.org/docs/tutorial/indexprogress.html