Scala – Tips & Tricks

1. Companion Object :

If the object & a class share the same name & are located in same source file, they are called companion.

A companion class can access private method & fields inside of it’s companion object & vice versa

companion object can be use to implement various design pattern like factory design pattern , singleton design pattern

companion object works same way the static method works in java


2. Case class & Case Object :

Data class represents data types in domain , Imagine an online store where customer, Account,order,Inventory are all types of domain

Service class represents works to be performed in an application. They know what to do but they donot hold data themselves , When application calls the service they pass data to service, and service transform it in some other way, Example : Persistance ,  Logger , Calculation engine.

Case class is a representation of data types that removes a lots of boilerplate code , it generates JVM specific convinient  method, Makes every class parameter a field, is immutable by default hence thread safe , perform value-based equivalence by default.

3. Higher Order functions :

As scala is functional programming , it supports higher order function where function can take an argument as another function whose(the function as argument) declaration(calling part) is written inside function’s definition & it’s implementation is defined during either declaration of outer function in the form of anonymous function or directly declaring as any other function & calling it.

object higherOrder {

def applyF(i:Int,f:(Int)=>Int) {

def multiply(x:Int):Int = {

def main(args:Array[String])  {



Spark – Streaming

Streaming Fundamentals

  1. Streaming Context :
    – Consumes a stream of data in Spark
    – Register an InputDStream to produce Receiver object
    – It is the main Entry point for spark funcionality
    – Spark provides a number of default implementation of sources like Twitter, Akka Actor and ZeroMQ that are accessible from the context
    – A streamingContext object can be created from a SparkContext object
    – A SparkContext represent the connection to a Spark Cluster and can be used to create RDDs, acumulators and broadcast variables on that clusterimport org.apache.spark._
    import org.apache.spark.streaming._
    var ssc = new StreamingContext(sc,Second(1));
  2. DStream :
    – Discretized Stream is the basic abstraction provided by spark streaming
    – It is a continues stream of data
    – It is received from source or from a processed data stream generated by transforming the input stream
    – Internally , A Dstream is represented by a continuous series of RDD and each RDD contains data from a certain interval
    – Any operation applied on a DSTream translates to operations on the underlying RDDs.
    – Input DStream are DStreams representing the stream of input data received from streaming  sources. There are 2 sourceof DSTream
    A.) Basic Source includes  File System & Socket connection
    B.) Advance Source includes Kafka, Flume, Kinesis
    – Every input DStream is associated with a Receiver object which receives the data from a source and stores it in Spark’s memory for processingTransformation on DStream
    – Transformation allow the data from the input  DStream to be modified similar to RDD , DStream supports many of the transformation available on normal Spark RDD including map,flatmap,filter,reduce,groupby
    A.) map(func) : Return a new DStream by passing each element of source DStream through a function func
    B.) flatMap(func) is similar to map(func) but each input item can be mapped to 0 or more output items and returna  new DStream by passing each Dstream source
    C.) filter(func) returns a new DStream by selecting only the records that matches the criteria
    D.) reduce(func) return a new DStream of single-element RDDs
    E.) groupBy(func) return the new RDD which basically is made up with key and corresponding list of items of that group

    – DStream window :
    Spark Streaming also provides windowed computations which allow us to apply transformations over a sliding window of data
    – Output operation on DStream :
    Output operation allow Dstream’s data to be pushed out to external system like databases or file system
    output operation trigger the actual execution of all the DStream transformation
    It support print() , saveAsTextFile(prefix,[suffix]),saveAsObjectFiles(prefix,[suffix]), saveAsHadoopFiles(prefix,[suffix]), foreachRDD(func) types of output operation

    Example :
    dstream.foreachRDD(rdd => rdd.foreachPartition(pr =>
    val connection = ConnectionPool.getConnection()
    pr.foreach(record => connection.send(record))

  3. Caching and persistence  :
    – Dstream allows developer to cache/persis the stream’s data in memory. This is useful if the data in the DStream will be computed multiple times
    – This can be done using the persist() method on Dstream
    – For input stream that receive data over the network(such as Kafka,flume, socket etc) the default persistence level is set to replicate the data to wo nodes or fault-tolerance.
  4. Acuumulators , Broadcast variables & Checkpoints
    – Accumulators are variables that are only added through an associatives and commutative operation
    – They are used to implement counters or sums
    – Tracking accumulators in the UI can be useful for understanding the progress of running stages
    – Spark natively supports numeric accumulators We can create named or unnamed accumulators
    Broadcast variables :
    – Broadcast variables allow the programmer to keep a read-only variable cached on each machine rather than shipping a copy of it with tasks
    – They can be used to give every node a copy of a large input dataset in an efficient manner
    – Spark also attempts to distribute broadcast variables using efficient broadcast algorithm to reduce communication cost

Kafka – Insights (Managing under-replicated topic’s alert)

Apache Kafka is a distributed fault tolerant queue based messaging system. It has main component as Producer, consumer, topic, zookeeper, kafka broker. We are going to discuss today with respect to workflow of kafka publish-subscribe system working & some tips & treaks we can configure in order to maintain it very well.

Now lets discuss how kafka works internally

  1. Producers send message to a topic at regular intervals.
  2. Kafka broker stores all messages in the partitions configured for that particular topic. It ensures the messages are equally shared between partitions. If the producer sends two messages and there are two partitions, Kafka will store one message in the first partition and the second message in the second partition.
    Usually we can set partitions & replications factor while declaring kafka topics :
    bin/ –create –zookeeper localhost:2181 –replication-factor 1 –partitions 1 –topic topic-name
  3. Consumer subscribes to a specific topic.
  4. Once the consumer subscribes to a topic, Kafka will provide the current offset of the topic to the consumer and also saves the offset in the Zookeeper ensemble.
  5. Consumer will request the Kafka in a regular interval (like 100 Ms) for new messages.
  6. Once Kafka receives the messages from producers, it forwards these messages to the consumers.
  7. Consumer will receive the message and process it.
  8. Once the messages are processed, consumer will send an acknowledgement to the Kafka broker.
  9. Once Kafka receives an acknowledgement, it changes the offset to the new value and updates it in the Zookeeper. Since offsets are maintained in the Zookeeper, the consumer can read next message correctly even during server outrages.
  10. This above flow will repeat until the consumer stops the request.
  11. Consumer has the option to rewind/skip to the desired offset of a topic at any time and read all the subsequent messages.

Now here consider if we have kafka cluster of 4 nodes & replication factor for a topic 3. As we know kafka maintains list of in-sync replicas(ISR) based on 2 configuration

  1. replica.lag.max.messages : This config tells that if a replica is out-of-sync with master for more than N messages than it removes that replica from ISR & creates an alert for a particular topic being under replicated as that replica is out-of-sync for N number of messages.
  2. : This config tells that if a slave (Replica) didn’t send a request to master for a message within configured time than that replica will removed from ISR(In-sync replica) & alert will be pop as under replicated topic.

Sometimes while working on production we face a lots of this kinds of errors which is not a good sign. There are various reasons for a node or replica for being slow or down.
so the ideal practice to minimize the alerts is to only set & avoid setting replica.lag.max.messages .

Thanks to  Neha nerkhade ( for her awesome blog.

Reference :


Some logical question /answer

  1. Find the 2 missing number from an array of N element given N-2 element

    Scala Code :

  2. def findMissingNums(datax:Array[Int], len:Integer) = {
      val total = datax.sum
      val actual_total = (1 to len).sum
      val diff = actual_total - total
      var i = diff
      var firstElem=0
      var secondElem=0
      while (i > 0) {
        if (!datax.contains(i) && diff < len) {       
         firstElem = i
         secondElem = diff - firstElem  
         i = 0     
        else if(!datax.contains(i) && diff > len){
         firstElem = i
         secondElem = diff - firstElem
        i = i - 1

    2. Swap the 2 numbers without using temp variable

    def swapNum(num1:Int,num2:Int){
    var number1=num1
    var number2=num2
    number1 = number2 – number1
    number2 = number2 – number1
    number1 = number1 + number2
    println(“num1 = “+number1+”, num2 = “+number2)


HBase shell commands

  1. describe ‘tablename’ :
    Displays the metadata of particular table
    Example :

    describe 'employee' 
    {NAME => 'professional_info', BLOOMFILTER => 'ROW', VERSIONS => '3', IN_MEMORY => 'false', KEEP_DELETED_CELLS => 'FALSE', DATA_BLOCK_ENCODING =
  2. disable ’employee’ :
    Always disable table before performing any DDL operation
  3. alter ’employee’, {NAME => ‘col_fam1’, COMPRESSION => ‘GZ’}
    With alter command you can add columns on fly as well as add different parameter to columns like storing IN_MEMORY , Setting compression for particular column family , setting number of versions etc.
  4. list :
    List all the tables stored in Hbase :
    Example :
    [“employee”, “table1”, “user_hcat_load_table”]
  5. enable_all ‘t.*’ :
    Enables all the table matching regex
  6. exists ‘student’ :
    Check weather student table exist or not
  7. show_filters :
    Shows all the available filter in Hbase
  8. alter_status :
    Get the status of the alter command. Indicates the number of regions of the table that have received the updated schema Pass table name.
  9. alter_async :
    Alter column family schema, does not wait for all regions to receive the
    schema changes. Pass table name and a dictionary specifying new column
    family schema. Dictionaries are described on the main help command output.
    Dictionary must include name of column family to alter.
    To change or add the ‘f1’ column family in table ‘t1’ from defaults
    to instead keep a maximum of 5 cell VERSIONS, do:hbase> alter_async ‘t1’, NAME => ‘f1’, VERSIONS => 5To delete the ‘f1’ column family in table ‘t1’, do:

    hbase> alter_async ‘t1’, NAME => ‘f1’, METHOD => ‘delete’or a shorter version:hbase> alter_async ‘t1’, ‘delete’ => ‘f1’
    You can also change table-scope attributes like MAX_FILESIZE

    For example, to change the max size of a family to 128MB, do:

    hbase> alter ‘t1’, METHOD => ‘table_att’, MAX_FILESIZE => ‘134217728’

    There could be more than one alteration in one command:

    hbase> alter ‘t1’, {NAME => ‘f1’}, {NAME => ‘f2’, METHOD => ‘delete’}

    To check if all the regions have been updated, use alter_status <table_name>

  10. count :
    Counts the number of rows in table. COUNT interval is by default 1000, one can increase the interval as well as set scan caching on count scan by default.
    hbase> count ‘t1’, INTERVAL => 100000
    hbase> count ‘t1’, CACHE => 1000
    hbase> count ‘t1’, INTERVAL => 10, CACHE => 1000

  11. delete :
    Put a delete cell value at specified table/row/column and optionally
    timestamp coordinates. Deletes must match the deleted cell’s
    coordinates exactly. When scanning, a delete cell suppresses older
    versions. To delete a cell from ‘t1’ at row ‘r1’ under column ‘c1’
    marked with the time ‘ts1’, do:hbase> delete ‘t1’, ‘r1’, ‘c1’, ts1
  12. deleteall :
    Delete all cells in a given row; pass a table name, row, and optionally
    a column and timestamp. Examples:hbase> deleteall ‘t1’, ‘r1’
    hbase> deleteall ‘t1’, ‘r1’, ‘c1’
    hbase> deleteall ‘t1’, ‘r1’, ‘c1’, ts1

  13. get :
    Get row or cell contents; pass table name, row, and optionally
    a dictionary of column(s), timestamp, timerange and versions.
    hbase> get ‘t1’, ‘r1’
    hbase> get ‘t1’, ‘r1’, {TIMERANGE => [ts1, ts2]}
    hbase> get ‘t1’, ‘r1’, {COLUMN => ‘c1’}
    hbase> get ‘t1’, ‘r1’, {COLUMN => [‘c1’, ‘c2’, ‘c3’]}
    hbase> get ‘t1’, ‘r1’, {COLUMN => ‘c1’, TIMESTAMP => ts1}
    hbase> get ‘t1’, ‘r1’, {COLUMN => ‘c1’, TIMERANGE => [ts1, ts2], VERSIONS => 4}
    hbase> get ‘t1’, ‘r1’, {COLUMN => ‘c1’, TIMESTAMP => ts1, VERSIONS => 4}
    hbase> get ‘t1’, ‘r1’, {FILTER => “ValueFilter(=, ‘binary:abc’)”}
    hbase> get ‘t1’, ‘r1’, ‘c1’
    hbase> get ‘t1’, ‘r1’, ‘c1’, ‘c2’
    hbase> get ‘t1’, ‘r1’, [‘c1’, ‘c2’]
  14.  put :
    Put a cell ‘value’ at specified table/row/column and optionally
    timestamp coordinates. To put a cell value into table ‘t1’ at
    row ‘r1’ under column ‘c1’ marked with the time ‘ts1’, do:hbase> put ‘t1’, ‘r1’, ‘c1’, ‘value’, ts1

  15. scan :
    Scan a table; pass table name and optionally a dictionary of scanner
    specifications. Scanner specifications may include one or more of:
    or COLUMNS, CACHEIf no columns are specified, all columns will be scanned.
    To scan all members of a column family, leave the qualifier empty as in
    ‘col_family:’.The filter can be specified in two ways:
    1. Using a filterString – more information on this is available in the
    Filter Language document attached to the HBASE-4176 JIRA
    2. Using the entire package name of the filter.Some examples:hbase> scan ‘.META.’
    hbase> scan ‘.META.’, {COLUMNS => ‘info:regioninfo’}
    hbase> scan ‘t1’, {COLUMNS => [‘c1’, ‘c2’], LIMIT => 10, STARTROW => ‘xyz’}
    hbase> scan ‘t1’, {COLUMNS => ‘c1’, TIMERANGE => [1303668804, 1303668904]}
    hbase> scan ‘t1’, {FILTER => “(PrefixFilter (‘row2’) AND
    (QualifierFilter (>=, ‘binary:xyz’))) AND (TimestampsFilter ( 123, 456))”}
    hbase> scan ‘t1’, {FILTER =>, 0)}
  16. truncate :
    Disables, drops and recreates the specified table.
    hbase>truncate ‘t1’

    Reference :



Data types of Spark Mlib – Part 2

Friends, so far we have gone through Basic types of spark mllib data type. Spark mllib also supports distributed matrices that includes Row Matrix , IndexedRowMatrix, CoordinateMatrix, BlockMatrix.

A distributed matrix has long-typed row and column indices and double-typed values, stored distributively in one or more RDDs. It is very important to choose the right format to store large and distributed matrices. Converting a distributed matrix to a different format may require a global shuffle, which is quite expensive. Four types of distributed matrices have been implemented so far.

  1. RowMatrix :A RowMatrix is made up of collection of row which made up of local vector. Since each row is represented by a local vector, the number of columns is limited by the integer range but it should be much smaller in practice.

    A RowMatrix can be created from an RDD[Vector] instance. Then we can compute its column summary statistics and decompositions. QR decomposition is of the form A = QR where Q is an orthogonal matrix and R is an upper triangular matrix.

    Example :

    val rows: RDD[Vector] = sc.parallelize(Seq(Vectors.dense(1.0, 0.0, 3.0),Vectors.dense(2.0,30.0,4.0))) 
    O/p :rows: org.apache.spark.rdd.RDD[org.apache.spark.mllib.linalg.Vector] = ParallelCollectionRDD[2] at parallelize at <console>:26
    val mat: RowMatrix = new RowMatrix(rows) // Get its size. val m = mat.numRows() val n = mat.numCols()
  3. IndexedRowMatrix :

    It is similar to RowMatrix where each row represented by it’s index & local vector
    An IndexedRowMatrix can be created from an RDD[IndexedRow] instance, where IndexedRow is a wrapper over (Long, Vector).

    Example :

    import org.apache.spark.mllib.linalg.distributed.{IndexedRow, IndexedRowMatrix, RowMatrix}
    val rows: RDD[IndexedRow] = sc.parallelize(Seq(IndexedRow(0,Vectors.dense(1.0,2.0,3.0)),IndexedRow(1,Vectors.dense(4.0,5.0,6.0)))
    // Create an IndexedRowMatrix from an RDD[IndexedRow].
    val mat: IndexedRowMatrix = new IndexedRowMatrix(rows)
    // Get its size.
    val m = mat.numRows()
    val n = mat.numCols()
    // Drop its row indices.
    val rowMat: RowMatrix = mat.toRowMatrix()


  4. Coordinate Matrix :
    A coordinate matrix is backed by rowindices , columnindices & value in double & can be created from an RDD[MatrixEntry]. We can also convert Coordinate matrix to indexedRowMatrix by calling toIndexRowMatrix

    Example :

    import org.apache.spark.mllib.linalg.distributed.{CoordinateMatrix, MatrixEntry}
    val entries: RDD[MatrixEntry] = sc.parallelize(Seq(MatrixEntry(0,1,1.2),MatrixEntry(0,2,1.5),MatrixEntry(0,3,2.5)))
    // Create a CoordinateMatrix from an RDD[MatrixEntry].
    val mat: CoordinateMatrix = new CoordinateMatrix(entries)
    // Get its size.
    val m = mat.numRows()
    val n = mat.numCols()
    // Convert it to an IndexRowMatrix whose rows are sparse vectors.
    val indexedRowMatrix = mat.toIndexedRowMatrix()
  5. BlockMatrix  :

    When we want to perform multiple matrix addition & multiplication where each submatrix backed by it’s index we uses BlockMatrix.

    A BlockMatrix can be most easily created from an IndexedRowMatrix or CoordinateMatrix by calling toBlockMatrix which will create block size of 1024X1024.

    Example :

    import org.apache.spark.mllib.linalg.distributed.{BlockMatrix, CoordinateMatrix, MatrixEntry}
    val entries: RDD[MatrixEntry] = sc.parallelize(Seq(MatrixEntry(0,1,1.2),MatrixEntry(0,2,1.5),MatrixEntry(0,3,2.5)))
    // Create a CoordinateMatrix from an RDD[MatrixEntry].
    val coordMat: CoordinateMatrix = new CoordinateMatrix(entries)
    // Transform the CoordinateMatrix to a BlockMatrix
    val matA: BlockMatrix = coordMat.toBlockMatrix().cache()
    // Validate whether the BlockMatrix is set up properly. Throws an Exception when it is not valid.
    // Nothing happens if it is valid.
    // Calculate A^T A.
    val ata = matA.transpose.multiply(matA)

Data types of Spark Mlib – Part 1

Hello friends Spark Mlib does support multiple data types in the form of vectors & matrices.

A local vector has 1st argument as indices that is integers in nature & 2nd argument as double type as values. There are 2 types of vectors

  1. Dense vector :

A dense vector is backed by a double array representing its entry values

def dense(values: Array[Double]): Vector

Creates a dense vector from a double array.

Example : 
val dv: Vector = Vectors.dense(1.0, 0.0, 3.0)
o/p : dv: org.apache.spark.mllib.linalg.Vector = [1.0,0.0,3.0]

 2.A sparse vector is backed by two parallel arrays: indices and values.

def sparse(size: Int, indices: Array[Int], values: Array[Double]):  Vector

Creates a sparse vector providing its index array and value array.

We can declare sparse vector in other way to with Seq as 2nd  parameter & size as 1st

def sparse(size: Int, elements: Seq[(Int, Double)]): Vector

Creates a sparse vector using unordered (index, value) pairs.

Example : 

val sv1: Vector = Vectors.sparse(3, Array(0, 2), Array(1.0, 3.0))
o/p : sv1: org.apache.spark.mllib.linalg.Vector = (3,[0,2],[1.0,3.0])

val sv2: Vector = Vectors.sparse(3, Seq((0, 1.0), (2, 3.0)))
o/p : sv2: org.apache.spark.mllib.linalg.Vector = (3,[0,2],[1.0,3.0])

3. Labeled Point :

A labeled point is a local vector, either dense or sparse, associated with a label/response. In MLlib, labeled points are used in supervised learning algorithms. We use a double to store a label, so we can use labeled points in both regression and classification. For binary classification, a label should be either 0 (negative) or 1 (positive). For multiclass classification, labels should be class indices starting from zero: 0, 1, 2, ....

A labeled point is represented by the case class LabeledPoint.

val pos = LabeledPoint(1.0, Vectors.dense(1.0, 0.0, 3.0))

// Create a labeled point with a negative label and a sparse feature vector.
val neg = LabeledPoint(0.0, Vectors.sparse(3, Array(0, 2), Array(1.0, 3.0)))


Spark Mlib supports 2 types of Matrices 1. Local matrix & 2. Distributed Matrix

Local Matrix :

The base class of local matrices is Matrix, and we provide two implementations: DenseMatrix, and SparseMatrix. We recommend using the factory methods implemented in Matrices to create local matrices. Remember, local matrices in MLlib are stored in column-major order.

  1. DenseMatrix :

    def dense(numRows: Int, numCols: Int, values: Array[Double]): Matrix


    Creates a column-major dense matrix.

    Example :
    val dm: Matrix = Matrices.dense(3, 2, Array(1.0, 3.0, 5.0, 2.0, 4.0, 6.0))
    o/p : dm: org.apache.spark.mllib.linalg.Matrix = 
    1.0 2.0 
    3.0 4.0 
    5.0 6.0
  2. SparseMatrix :

    def sparse(numRows: Int, numCols: Int, colPtrs: Array[Int], rowIndices: Array[Int], values:Array[Double]): Matrix

    Creates a column-major sparse matrix in Compressed Sparse Column (CSC) format.

    numRows -> Describes number of rows in matrix
    numCols -> Describe number of columns in matrix
    colPtrs -> Describe index corrosponding to start of new column
    RowIndices -> Row index of element in column-major way.
    Values -> values in double

    Example : 
     1.0 0.0 4.0
     0.0 3.0 5.0
     2.0 0.0 6.0
    is stored as values: [1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0, 5.0, 6.0], rowIndices=[0, 2, 1, 0, 1, 2], colPointers=[0, 2, 3, 6].
    Another example :
    val sm: Matrix = Matrices.sparse(3, 2, Array(0, 1, 3), Array(0, 2, 1), Array(9, 6, 8))
    O/p :sm: org.apache.spark.mllib.linalg.Matrix = 
    3 x 2 CSCMatrix
    (0,0) 9.0
    (2,1) 6.0
    (1,1) 8.0

    We will see distributed Matrix in next session.


Running scala oops files from command line- spark-shell

Writing a script in scala , but still want to follow object oriented programming as most of the programmer are from OOPs background due to java practice, can still execute the spark scripts using spark-shell in OOPs way.

Here I am giving a simple example of CollectAsync() future method , also demonstrate how we can run scala scripts through spark-shell that is having oo code.

CollectAsync() returns FutureAction that returns object of type Seq[Int] in future so does allow parallel programming by allowing multiple operation to perform in parallel to support non-blocking IO.

Test.scala :

import org.apache.spark.FutureAction
import org.apache.spark.{SPARK_VERSION, SparkContext}
import org.apache.spark.FutureAction
import scala.concurrent.Future

object Test {
def main(args: Array[String]) {
//val sc1 = new SparkContext()
val data = sc.parallelize(1 to 250, 1)
var futureData: FutureAction[Seq[Int]] = data.collectAsync()
println("Hello WOrld")
var itr:Iterator[Int] = data.toLocalIterator
Test.main(null) /* This line is part of scala file Test.scala */

Now in order to run above program you have to write following command :

sudo spark-shell -i Test.scala

So in this case spark-shell is taking Test.scala file & create a module after that

Test.main(null) gets called that calls the main method of Test class.

1 thing make sure you are not creating another SparkContext in your code

you can re-utilize sparkContext of present spark session.

Priority Queue – Data Structure

We know that Queue follows First-In-First-Out model but sometimes we need to process the objects in the queue based on the priority. That is when JavaPriorityQueue is used.

For example, let’s say we have an application that generates stocks reports for daily trading session. This application processes a lot of data and takes time to process it. So customers are sending request to the application that is actually getting queued but we want to process premium customers first and standard customers after them. So in this case PriorityQueue implementation in java can be really helpful.

PriorityQueue is an unbounded queue based on a priority heap and the elements of the priority queue are ordered by default in natural order. We can provide a Comparator for ordering at the time of instantiation of priority queue.

Java Priority Queue doesn’t allow null values and we can’t create PriorityQueue of Objects that are non-comparable. We use java Comparable and Comparator for sorting Objects and Priority Queue use them for priority processing of it’s elements.

The simplest way to implement a priority queue data type is to keep an associative array mapping each priority to a list of elements with that priority. If association lists or hash tables are used to implement the associative array, adding an element takes constant time but removing or peeking at the element of highest priority takes linear (O(n)) time, because we must search all keys for the largest one. If a self-balancing binary search tree is used, all three operations take O(log n) time; this is a popular solution in environments that already provide balanced trees but nothing more sophisticated.

There are a number of specialized heap data structures that either supply additional operations or outperform the above approaches. The binary heap uses O(log n) time for both operations, but allows peeking at the element of highest priority without removing it in constant time. Binomial heaps add several more operations, but require O(log n) time for peeking. Fibonacci heaps can insert elements, peek at the maximum priority element, and decrease an element’s priority in amortized constant time (deletions are still O(log n)).


// BinaryHeap class
// CONSTRUCTION: empty or with initial array.
// ******************PUBLIC OPERATIONS*********************
// void insert( x )       –> Insert x
// Comparable deleteMin( )–> Return and remove smallest item
// Comparable findMin( )  –> Return smallest item
// boolean isEmpty( )     –> Return true if empty; else false
// void makeEmpty( )      –> Remove all items
// ******************ERRORS********************************
// Throws UnderflowException for findMin and deleteMin when empty

* Implements a binary heap.
* Note that all “matching” is based on the compareTo method.
* @author Bhavesh Gadoya
public class BinaryHeap implements PriorityQueue {
* Construct the binary heap.
public BinaryHeap( ) {
currentSize = 0;
array = new Comparable[ DEFAULT_CAPACITY + 1 ];

* Construct the binary heap from an array.
* @param items the inital items in the binary heap.
public BinaryHeap( Comparable [ ] items ) {
currentSize = items.length;
array = new Comparable[ items.length + 1 ];

for( int i = 0; i < items.length; i++ )
array[ i + 1 ] = items[ i ];
buildHeap( );

* Insert into the priority queue.
* Duplicates are allowed.
* @param x the item to insert.
* @return null, signifying that decreaseKey cannot be used.
public PriorityQueue.Position insert( Comparable x ) {
if( currentSize + 1 == array.length )
doubleArray( );

// Percolate up
int hole = ++currentSize;
array[ 0 ] = x;

for( ; x.compareTo( array[ hole / 2 ] ) < 0; hole /= 2 )
array[ hole ] = array[ hole / 2 ];
array[ hole ] = x;

return null;

* @throws UnsupportedOperationException because no Positions are returned
* by the insert method for BinaryHeap.
public void decreaseKey( PriorityQueue.Position p, Comparable newVal ) {
throw new UnsupportedOperationException( “Cannot use decreaseKey for binary heap” );

* Find the smallest item in the priority queue.
* @return the smallest item.
* @throws UnderflowException if empty.
public Comparable findMin( ) {
if( isEmpty( ) )
throw new UnderflowException( “Empty binary heap” );
return array[ 1 ];

* Remove the smallest item from the priority queue.
* @return the smallest item.
* @throws UnderflowException if empty.
public Comparable deleteMin( ) {
Comparable minItem = findMin( );
array[ 1 ] = array[ currentSize– ];
percolateDown( 1 );

return minItem;

* Establish heap order property from an arbitrary
* arrangement of items. Runs in linear time.
private void buildHeap( ) {
for( int i = currentSize / 2; i > 0; i– )
percolateDown( i );

* Test if the priority queue is logically empty.
* @return true if empty, false otherwise.
public boolean isEmpty( ) {
return currentSize == 0;

* Returns size.
* @return current size.
public int size( ) {
return currentSize;

* Make the priority queue logically empty.
public void makeEmpty( ) {
currentSize = 0;

private static final int DEFAULT_CAPACITY = 100;

private int currentSize;      // Number of elements in heap
private Comparable [ ] array; // The heap array

* Internal method to percolate down in the heap.
* @param hole the index at which the percolate begins.
private void percolateDown( int hole ) {
int child;
Comparable tmp = array[ hole ];

for( ; hole * 2 <= currentSize; hole = child ) {
child = hole * 2;
if( child != currentSize &&
array[ child + 1 ].compareTo( array[ child ] ) < 0 )
if( array[ child ].compareTo( tmp ) < 0 )
array[ hole ] = array[ child ];
array[ hole ] = tmp;

* Internal method to extend array.
private void doubleArray( ) {
Comparable [ ] newArray;

newArray = new Comparable[ array.length * 2 ];
for( int i = 0; i < array.length; i++ )
newArray[ i ] = array[ i ];
array = newArray;

// Test program
public static void main( String [ ] args ) {
int numItems = 10000;
BinaryHeap h1 = new BinaryHeap( );
Integer [ ] items = new Integer[ numItems – 1 ];

int i = 37;
int j;

for( i = 37, j = 0; i != 0; i = ( i + 37 ) % numItems, j++ ) {
h1.insert( new Integer( i ) );
items[ j ] = new Integer( i );

for( i = 1; i < numItems; i++ )
if( ((Integer)( h1.deleteMin( ) )).intValue( ) != i )
System.out.println( “Oops! ” + i );

BinaryHeap h2 = new BinaryHeap( items );
for( i = 1; i < numItems; i++ )
if( ((Integer)( h2.deleteMin( ) )).intValue( ) != i )
System.out.println( “Oops! ” + i );

// PriorityQueue interface
// ******************PUBLIC OPERATIONS*********************
// Position insert( x )   –> Insert x
// Comparable deleteMin( )–> Return and remove smallest item
// Comparable findMin( )  –> Return smallest item
// boolean isEmpty( )     –> Return true if empty; else false
// void makeEmpty( )      –> Remove all items
// int size( )            –> Return size
// void decreaseKey( p, v)–> Decrease value in p to v
// ******************ERRORS********************************
// Throws UnderflowException for findMin and deleteMin when empty

* PriorityQueue interface.
* Some priority queues may support a decreaseKey operation,
* but this is considered an advanced operation. If so,
* a Position is returned by insert.
* Note that all “matching” is based on the compareTo method.
* @author Bhavesh Gadoya
public interface PriorityQueue {
* The Position interface represents a type that can
* be used for the decreaseKey operation.
public interface Position {
* Returns the value stored at this position.
* @return the value stored at this position.
Comparable getValue( );

* Insert into the priority queue, maintaining heap order.
* Duplicates are allowed.
* @param x the item to insert.
* @return may return a Position useful for decreaseKey.
Position insert( Comparable x );

* Find the smallest item in the priority queue.
* @return the smallest item.
* @throws UnderflowException if empty.
Comparable findMin( );

* Remove the smallest item from the priority queue.
* @return the smallest item.
* @throws UnderflowException if empty.
Comparable deleteMin( );

* Test if the priority queue is logically empty.
* @return true if empty, false otherwise.
boolean isEmpty( );

* Make the priority queue logically empty.
void makeEmpty( );

* Returns the size.
* @return current size.
int size( );

* Change the value of the item stored in the pairing heap.
* This is considered an advanced operation and might not
* be supported by all priority queues. A priority queue
* will signal its intention to not support decreaseKey by
* having insert return null consistently.
* @param p any non-null Position returned by insert.
* @param newVal the new value, which must be smaller
*    than the currently stored value.
* @throws IllegalArgumentException if p invalid.
* @throws UnsupportedOperationException if appropriate.
void decreaseKey( Position p, Comparable newVal );

* Exception class for access in empty containers
* such as stacks, queues, and priority queues.
* @author Bhavesh Gadoya
public class UnderflowException extends RuntimeException {
* Construct this exception object.
* @param message the error message.
public UnderflowException( String message ) {
super( message );


In-built java implementation of priorityQueue :

package com.journaldev.collections;

public class Customer {
	private int id;
	private String name;
	public Customer(int i, String n){;;

	public int getId() {
		return id;

	public String getName() {
		return name;

We will use java random number generation to generate random customer objects. For natural ordering, I will use Integer that is also a java wrapper class.

Here is our final test code that shows how to use priority queue in java.

package com.journaldev.collections;

import java.util.Comparator;
import java.util.PriorityQueue;
import java.util.Queue;
import java.util.Random;

public class PriorityQueueExample {

	public static void main(String[] args) {
		//natural ordering example of priority queue
		Queue<Integer> integerPriorityQueue = new PriorityQueue<>(7);
		Random rand = new Random();
		for(int i=0;i<7;i++){
			integerPriorityQueue.add(new Integer(rand.nextInt(100)));
		for(int i=0;i<7;i++){
			Integer in = integerPriorityQueue.poll();
			System.out.println("Processing Integer:"+in);
		//PriorityQueue example with Comparator
		Queue<Customer> customerPriorityQueue = new PriorityQueue<>(7, idComparator);
	//Comparator anonymous class implementation
	public static Comparator<Customer> idComparator = new Comparator<Customer>(){
		public int compare(Customer c1, Customer c2) {
            return (int) (c1.getId() - c2.getId());

	//utility method to add random data to Queue
	private static void addDataToQueue(Queue<Customer> customerPriorityQueue) {
		Random rand = new Random();
		for(int i=0; i<7; i++){
			int id = rand.nextInt(100);
			customerPriorityQueue.add(new Customer(id, "Pankaj "+id));
	//utility method to poll data from queue
	private static void pollDataFromQueue(Queue<Customer> customerPriorityQueue) {
			Customer cust = customerPriorityQueue.poll();
			if(cust == null) break;
			System.out.println("Processing Customer with ID="+cust.getId());